The new middle class—an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution—embraced Finney’s message. John Murray, who is called the “Father of American Universalism,” was a central figure in the founding of the Universalist Church of America in 1793. 11355614 Evaluate the extent to which religious ideas of the Second Great Awakening shaped reform movements in the first half of the nineteenth century. Women did, however, become very important informally, as they facilitated conversion and religious upbringing of their children. The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation. They preached or prayed aloud on rare occasions, but they were more likely to give testimonials of their conversion experience or work through the conversion process directly with sinners (who could be male or female). Beginning in 1805, Unitarian books appeared by John Sherman and Noah Worcester. "Black Harry" Hosier (1750–1906), the first African-American Methodist preacher and a fabled orator despite being illiterate, was a crossover success in both black and white revivals. These "Great Awakenings" happened between the 18th and late 20th century and were generally led by Protestant ministers. Much like the previous awakening, there was a religious revival many of the following previous protestant ideals. Rev. The Second Great Awakening. And who were the leaders of the Great Awakening? Though they typically held no formal leadership roles, women became very important informally in the process of conversion and in the religious upbringing of their children through family structure and through their maternal roles. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. Young led his followers along the Mormon Trail, a 1,300-mile route that Mormon pioneers traveled from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah. The Second Great Awakening not only renewed America’s religious intensity but it also initiated many of the reform movements that would later seize the country, and some can even still be seen today. They would often travel between towns and talk about the gospel, promoting Christianity … Identify the key religious movements that emerged out of the western New York frontier. Joseph Smith (1805–1844) lived in upstate New York when he received visions in 1820. After Smith was assassinated in 1844, Brigham Young and the Quorum of the Twelve took leadership of the church and led followers to a city near the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Brigham Young (1801–1877) arose as Smith's successor and led the Mormons away to Utah, where they settled in Salt Lake City. As a result, local churches saw their role in society as purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, as well as through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation, they needed not only to repent for personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. “The first third of the nineteenth century experienced a period of religious ferment, chaos, and originality unmatched in American history.” –Nathan O. Hatch The Second Great Awakening changed Americans' understanding of their relationship with God. While there is no single reason women joined the revival movement, the revival provided many women with shared experiences. One of the early camp meetings took place in July 1800 at Gasper River Church in southwestern Kentucky. One key change he made was in promoting mass conversions during revival meetings. During this revival, meetings were held in small towns and large cities throughout the country, and the unique frontier institution known as the camp meeting began. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood. The post-revival phase has to be considered if we are to understand the Second Great Awakening as a whole. What was the Second Great Awakening?The Second Great Awakening was prompted by falling interest in religion when people were excited about the innovations of the Industrial Revolution and the rapid expansion of U.S. territories, particularly in the west. Unlike the Episcopalian religion, ministers in these sects were typically uneducated. Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the Northern Tier. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. In the newly settled frontier regions, the revivals of the Second Great Awakening took the form of camp meetings. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. His efforts and those of the ordained minister Richard Allen (1760–1831) led to the founding of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in 1794. The Second Great Awakening was a diverse bundle of revivals affecting a broad swathe of American religious, political, and public life. Unitarianism and Universalism were early Christian denominations that spread quickly during the nineteenth century. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. Soon persecuted for their beliefs, the group left New York moving first to Ohio, then Missouri, and finally Nauvoo, Illinois, where they lived for five years. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival, with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people, inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. The “Burned-Over District” in central and western New York was so named due to the rampant religious revivals of the nineteenth century. After leaving Missouri, Smith built the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, near which he was assassinated in 1844. The “Burned-Over District” refers to the religious scene in early nineteenth-century western and central New York, where religious revivals and Pentecostal movements of the Second Great Awakening took place. During the antebellum period, the Second Great Awakening inspired advocacy for a number of reform topics, including women’s rights. While they constituted the majority of converts and participants, women were not formally indoctrinated and did not hold leading ministerial positions. Joseph Smith, Jr. portrait owned by Joseph Smith III. Joseph Smith, Jr., founded the Latter Day Saint movement, which later gave rise to Mormonism. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that happened in America in the early 19th century. Society and religion in the New England colonies . It pushed the idea of individual salvation and free will over predestination. Their purpose was to convince people that religious power … Society and religion in the New England colonies. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. The Second Great Awakening commenced in the late 18 th century, gained momentum in the early 19 th century, and was at its peak in the middle of the 19 th century. According to church belief, God inspired Young to call for the Saints (as church members call themselves) to organize and head west, beyond the western frontier of the United States (into what was then Mexico, though the U.S. Army had already captured New Mexico and California in late 1846). Some Mormons are also either independent or non-practicing. Social reform prior to the Civil War came largely out of this new devotion to religion. Unlike the Calvinists, they believed and preached in salvation for all. Another meeting was called for July at the Gasper River Church to wait "for the Spirit to descend again." Wagon train migrations to the far west continued sporadically until the twentieth century, but not everyone could afford to uproot and transport a family by railroad, and the transcontinental railroad network only serviced limited main routes. The Second Great Awakening served as an organizing process that created, “a religious and educational infrastructure” across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges. Some women, especially in the South, encountered opposition to their conversion from their husbands and had to choose between submission to God or to the head of the household. To Smith, this meant restoring male leadership. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. New religious groups also resulted from the revivals. The Second Great Awakening inspired prison reforms, temperance movement, women's suffrage movements, and abolishment movement. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. The Middle colonies. Charles Grandison Finney, evangelist preacher: During the Second Great Awakening, progressively minded western evangelists, led by Charles Finney, challenged the establishment’s restrictions on women’s participation in the church. Main content. Western New York still had a frontier quality at the time, making professional and established clergy scarce. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. The movement began around 1790 and gained momentum by 1800; after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. Great Awakening, religious revival in the British American colonies between about 1720 and the 1740s. The movement began with the visions of Joseph Smith, Jr., in the “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York, which was so called for the intense flames of religious revival that swept across the region. The Methodists, on the other hand, had more of an internal structure in place. The “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York was a region that proved especially susceptible to the religious revivals of the early and mid-nineteenth century. The Baptists were highly decentralized with no hierarchical structure in place and preachers lived and worked among their congregation. Thus, Unitarians adhere to strict monotheism, maintaining that Jesus was a great man and a prophet of God but not God himself. This harsh treatment caused the body of the Church to move—first from New York to Ohio, then to Missouri, and then to Illinois, where church members built the city of Nauvoo. The Second Great Awakening also brought desires of wanting to create a perfect society with no crime, war, intoxicating drinks, etc. For many, "the Second Great Awakening" is one of those historical terms from a dusty textbook that sounds vaguely familiar, but the details are fuzzy at best. Mormons self-identify as Christian, though some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. The Second Great Awakening 25 revivals; they were depressed when there seemed to be a lack of religious Women were seen as the moral center of the household. The movement began around 1790 and gained momentum by 1800; after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. In the new frontier regions, the revivals of the Second Great Awakening took the form of vast and exhilarating camp meetings. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. Unitarian Henry Ware was appointed as the Hollis professor of divinity at Harvard College in 1805, and Harvard Divinity school then shifted from its conservative roots to teach Unitarian theology. Noted for his friendly and respectful relationship with American Indians and his pluralistic and multicultural view of spiritual truth, George de Benneville was well ahead of his time. The Second Great Awakening as an Organizing Process. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. This version of Christian philosophy became widely accepted during this time because it gave people more control over their spiritual lives. Other significant early modern Christian Universalist leaders included Elhanan Winchester, a Baptist preacher who wrote several books promoting the universal salvation of all souls after a period in purgatory and founded a church that ministered to African-American slaves in South Carolina; Hosea Ballou, a Universalist preacher in New England; and Hannah Whitall Smith, a writer and evangelist from a Quaker background who was active in the women’s suffrage and temperance movements. The revivals first stirred during the 1790s, but two major events after the turn of the century are often given as the starting point for the Second Great Awakening. Second Great Awakening: The Second Great Awakening was a revival movement during the early to mid-nineteenth century. Preachers were also able to now talk to crowds larger than ever. He served as pastor of the Universalist Society of Boston and wrote many hymns. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The revivals typically followed an arc of great emotional power and emphasized the individual’s sins and need to turn to Christ, and subsequent personal salvation. The United States was rapidly expanding, both territorially and economically. Circuit riders of various denominations preached to towns in camp meetings. These political and social changes made many people anxious, and the more egalitarian, emotional, and individualistic religious practices of the Second Great Awakening provided relief and comfort for Americans experiencing rapid change. Discuss the central commitments and development of Unitarianism and Universalism in the United States. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. Mormons believe that returning to God requires following the example of Jesus Christ and accepting his atonement through ordinances such as baptism. Workers also latched onto the message that they, too, could control their salvation, spiritually and perhaps financially. Unitarianism began in Poland and Transylvania in the late sixteenth century and had reached England by the mid-seventeenth century. It started in upstate New York in the … The most popular being spiritual rebirth, self-improvement, and perfectionism all of it aligned with god. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. Th great awakening affected the colonies in a few ways. It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith. The Great Awakening was a spiritual renewal that swept the American Colonies, particularly New England, during the first half of the 18th Century. the three main points and/or ideas spread were: ... And the top three in the second division are promoted. In 1830, Smith published The Book of Mormon and organized the Church of Christ in upstate New York. The Second Great Awakening took place in the new United States between 1790 and 1840. The Second Great Awakening was a diverse bundle of revivals affecting a broad swathe of American religious, political, and public life. The thousands swept up in the movement believed in the possibility of creating a much better world. The earliest of the tent revivals focused on the Appalachian frontier, but they quickly moved into the area of the original colonies. They believe that Christ’s church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. Q: What were the goals of the leaders of the Great Awakening? Women constituted the majority of converts and participants in the Second Great Awakening and played an important informal role in religious revivals. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky, and Cane Ridge was instrumental in fostering what became known as the “Restoration Movement,” which was made up of nondenominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. Assess the role of women in the religious revivals of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. People needed to take a active piety with a belief in God as an active force who grace could be attained through faith and good works Intense flames of religious fervor swept the area of western New York during this time, in large part due to Finney’s work. Many people named this era the time of Romantic Christianity, meaning that love was the key to all things heavenly, God gifted those who loved. The movement began with the visions of Joseph Smith, Jr., in the “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York. He led revival meetings in New York and Pennsylvania, but his greatest success occurred after he accepted a ministry in Rochester, New York, in 1830. The Second Great Awakening began to decline by 1870. The Second Great Awakening had a profound effect on American religious history. The first communal Shaker farm was established in this area of New York during this period. As such, America arose as a religious nation as observed by Alexis de Tocqueville and others. An Awakening of Religion and Individualism. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. Interest in transforming the world was applied to political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. The most significant revivalist in this area was the Presbyterian minister Charles Grandison Finney (1792–1875) who was ordained in 1823. Besides producing many mainline Protestant converts, especially in nonconformist sects, the area spawned a number of innovative religious movements, all founded by laypeople during the early nineteenth century. Smith presented himself as a prophet and aimed to recapture what he viewed as the purity of the primitive Christian church that had been lost over the centuries. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Historians believe ideas set forth during the religious movement known as the Second Great Awakening inspired abolitionists to rise up against slavery. The movement rejected Calvinism and promoted the idea that humans not only had freewill but could determine, through their actions, whether or not they deserved salvation. Arising in the 1800s, it was one of the most significant occurrences in the history of American religion. The Second Great Awakening began to decline by 1870. Joseph Stevens Buckminster by Gilbert Stuart circa 1810. 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